Wednesday, August 03, 2011

DISTORTION OF US PROVOCATION OF KOREAN WAR

PREFACE

1. THE UNITED STATES PREPARED THE STRATAGEM TO SHIFT THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE KOREAN WAR ONTO THE DPRK BEFORE

STARTING THE WAR

Choice of the "Doctrine of Two-Stage War" Aimed at Killing Two Birds with One Stone

The Rumour of "Push South", "Conquest of the South", Was Spread before Provoking the War

Clashes along the 38th Parallel, the Prelude to the War

The Fake and the Camouflaged Offensive on the Eve of the War

The UN Resolution Forged before Starting the War

2. "STORY OF ATTACK FROM THE NORTH" FABRICATED SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH THE PROVOCATION OF THE WAR AND STRATAGEM AT THE UN

The "Story of Attack from the North" Produced from the Pockets of MacArthur and Syngman Rhee

US Forces Invasion Hidden by UN "Resolution"

3. FABRICATION OF THE PROVOCATION OF THE KOREAN WAR DURING THE WAR

"Documents Captured from the North", Invented against the US Documents, Obtained in Seoul, for the Provocation of the War

The "Story of Tanks That Invaded the South" and the "Story of Occupation of Seoul by First Attack from the North"

4. UNFOUNDED "RE-ILLUMINATION" OF THE PROVOCATION OF THE KOREAN WAR AFTER THE ARMISTICE

"Declassification" as Defined by the "Law of Free Information"

"Joint Assessment by Both Belligerent Parties"

5. STEPPED-UP MACHINATIONS TO "REVERSE" THE TRUTH ABOUT THE PROVOCATION OF THE KOREAN WAR SINCE THE END OF THE COLD WAR

Machinations to "Reverse" the Fact of the Provocation of the Korean War in Collusion with the Yeltsin Government

Machinations to "Reverse" the History of the Provocation of the Korean War by Instigating Japanese Militarists

Last-ditch Attempt to "Reverse" the History of the Provocation of the Korean War in Combination with the Moves to Isolate and Stifle the DPRK

CONCLUSION


PREFACE

Since June 25, 2000, the 50th year since their unleashing the Korean War, the United States has been bent on grossly distorting the history of the war and will continue to do so until 2003, with a sinister aim to shift the blame for their war, the blame for their aggression, onto the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK).

Saying that the Korean People's Army (KPA) was organized to "conquer the south," the United States spread misleading propaganda about the "conquest of the south", and the "People's Army's push south". Whenever they provoked a clash on the 38th parallel, they made false propaganda by linking the incident with the dignified name of the DPRK. Still now, more than half a century since they unleashed the Korean War, they are focusing their attack on the DPRK to disparage its dignity at every opportunity of telling a lie.

According to the Korean Armistice Agreement signed on July 27, 1953, a political conference of a higher level was to be held by both sides within three months in order to discuss the measures for the withdrawal of all the foreign troops from Korea and for the peaceful settlement of the Korean question. Still today, the United States, however, does not accept the proposal of the DPRK for replacing the Armistice Agreement with a peace agreement while flagrantly violating the Armistice Agreement.

The United States' refusal to accept the proposal for peace agreement to ensure legal ending of the Korean War is motivated by their ambition to re-invade the north of Korea and colonize the whole of the peninsula.

Another reason for their refusal to accept the proposal is their apprehension that they will not be able to avoid the responsibility for having provoked the Korean War.

For this reason, the United States is persistently plotting to shift the responsibility for the Korean War onto the DPRK in order to gain a favourable position in the legal termination of the war, hell-bent on seeking a "victor's" posture according to an American logic.

Since the end of the Second World War, the United States' military bases in many parts of the world are being abolished as a result of the people's struggle against the United States and for independence. This is a trend of the times.

Since the latter half of the 1980s, the US military bases in Spain, Greece, the Philippines and Panama have had to be abolished.

In Korea, too, there has been a consistent struggle to compel the withdrawal of the US forces, but the United States is trying to continue to keep south Korea as their base of aggression to invade the north and contain Japan, China and Russia.

Before the Korean War, the United States employed the tactics of delaying the pull-out of their forces from south Korea on the excuse of possible "conquest of the south" by the KPA. After the war, they said that they were remaining in south Korea at the request of the south Koreans in order to prevent north Korea from "invading the south" and "communizing it".

The 30th Session of the UN General Assembly in 1975 adopted a resolution for the withdrawal of the US forces from south Korea; in the early 1990s the Cold War ended; in December 1991 the Agreement for Reconciliation, Nonaggression, Cooperation and Exchange between North and South was adopted; and on June 15, 2000 the North-South Joint Declaration was published. In spite of the fact that these events denied the excuse for the US forces to stay in south Korea any longer, they resort to every means to perpetuate their occupation of south Korea, by cooking up the "nuclear issue" and the "missile issue".

One thing that must not be overlooked is that the United States is trying harder to distort the fact that they provoked the Korean War by insisting that they continue to keep their forces in south Korea for fear of possible "invasion of the south" by the DPRK as was the case at the time of June 25, 1950. They are intent on hiding their true colours as the provoker of the war by any means to blame their war upon the DPRK and on justifying their permanent occupation of south Korea.

The United States is also scheming to prove the authenticity of their "story of southward invasion" on June 25, 1950, in order to justify their preparation for a second Korean War and its provocation.

Pursuing their Korea policy of unleashing a second Korean War, the United States continue to distort the history of their provocation of the Korean War for the purpose of realizing their aim, believing that their "story of southward invasion" at the time of June 25 will provide a cogent pretext for justifying the preparation and provocation of the war.

We publish this book in the belief that exposing the United States' scheme of distorting the history of their provocation of the Korean War will be of great significance in preventing a new war on the Korean peninsula and ensuring peace in this part of the world.

1. THE UNITED STATES PREPARED THE STRATAGEM TO SHIFT THE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE KOREAN WAR ONTO THE DPRK BEFORE STARTING THE WAR

The United States attached great significance to the stratagem to justify their act of aggression and achieve the aim of the Korean War with success and prepared the scheme before they started the war.

According to this scheme, they chose a "rational" method of provoking the war, created a public opinion about "southward invasion", practised unprecedented deception, took camouflaged offensive, and craftily prepared a draft resolution to be submitted to the UN at the time of provoking the war.

CHOICE OF THE "DOCTRINE OF TWO-STAGE WAR" AIMED AT KILLING TWO BIRDS WITH ONE STONE

The United States, which pursued the policy of neocolonialism after the Second World War, advocated them "doctrine of two-stage war", the "doctrine of proxy war" and provoked the Korean War to test the doctrine for the first time.

By this doctrine the United States instigated their satellites to provoke a war and then participated in the war themselves in the guise of "helper" or "supporter" to hide their true colours of war-maker and aggressor and monopolize the result of the war. The doctrine as such is for killing two birds with one stone.

In accordance with the "doctrine of two-stage war" the United States instigated their puppet, the Syngman Rhee clique, to provoke a war and participated in the war in the guise of the UN flag in order to hide the true colours of war-maker and achieve the aim of aggression with ease.

The sinister purpose of the United States was revealed by Dulles who flew to south Korea as Truman's special envoy on June 17, 1950, immediately before provoking the war. After inspecting the positions of Syngman Rhee's puppet army deployed along the 38th parallel, he had a secret talk with Syngman Rhee, Sin Song Mo and other "push north" maniacs at the US embassy in the Pando Hotel. There he confirmed the plan of "push north" and ordered to "start attacking north Korea." He said that if they held on two weeks, he would bring the case to the UN and let it mobilize the three services in its name. (A Japanese book, A War without Victory, p. 29.)

A US publication said, "The strategy of the United States was to start the war with a cool-headed calculation that if their stooges retreated, it would provide an excuse for the United States to start aggression." (A US book. The History of the Korean War, Japanese ed., Part 1, p. 109.)

Colonel Eida, who had served on MacArthur's Headquarters and was transferred to US military advisory group in Iran, commented on the real content of the "doctrine of twostage war" in his talk with the staff officers of the Iranian Army in December 1950, by saying, "The United States plan was to occupy the territory of Korea north of the 38th parallel with Syngman Rhee troops' direct participation under the support of the US army and navy." (An Indian newspaper. Crossroads, December 22, 1950.)

The United States changed the strategic plan for the "conquest of the north" which had been made in 1949, to suit the method of the two-stage war. The original plan was to combine ground attack with landing operations on the East and West coasts of Korea. This plan would have been unable to achieve the purpose of the "doctrine of two-stage war".

Entering 1950, therefore, "the original plan of the United States for the troop landings on both the East and West coasts of Korea was withdrawn before the military operations on June 25, and all their efforts were concentrated on the breakthrough at the 38th parallel." (An Indian newspaper, Crossroads, December 22, 1950.)

Meanwhile, the United States inspired the Syngman Rhee puppet clique with war hysteria to encourage them to provoke a civil war in the forefront.

This fact proves that the "doctrine of two-stage war" of the United States was the cunning method of war provocation chosen to shift the responsibility for their war onto the DPRK.

THE RUMOUR OF "PUSH SOUTH", "CONQUEST OF THE SOUTH", WAS SPREAD BEFORE PROVOKING THE WAR

The United States made misleading propaganda about "push south" or "conquest of the south" by the KPA before the outbreak of the Korean War for the purpose of invading the north. This was intended to say that the DPRK was to blame for the war after they themselves provoked the war. For this purpose the United States made false propaganda of "push south", "conquest of the south" while emphasizing the need for the Syngman Rhee puppet clique to give the world an impression that south Korea was attacked first. (A US book. The Korean War: An Unanswered Question, pp. 44-45.)

When the KPA became a regular army in February 1948, the United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique talked about "push south". When they were scheming the "postponement of the withdrawal" of the US forces that had occupied south Korea after the defeat of the Japanese imperialists, they also spread misleading rumour of "conquest of the south" or "southward invasion by the People's Army". Although there was no indication of "invasion" from the north as was pointed out by the press report: "There is no real sign of attack" from the north (A South Korean book, 30 Years of US Forces in South Korea, p. 137); "On June 17 US Secretary of State Dulles came to visit south Korea and has inspected the 38th parallel but returned without finding anything unusual," (Ibid., p. 137.) the United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique made more frantic efforts to spread the rumour of "conquest of the south" with the approach of the day of provoking the war. Thus the United States tried to fill the south Korean society with the rumour of "conquest of the south".

CLASHES ALONG THE 3 8TH PARALLEL,

THE PRELUDE TO THE WAR

Since the 38th parallel was made the demarcation line between the north and south of Korea, the United States frequently caused clashes along the line. The Syngman Rhee puppet clique provoked more than 5,150 armed clashes by mobilizing approximately 84,000 troops under the command of the US Military Advisory Group in south Korea prior to the outbreak of the war. At a meeting of division commanders held in the conference hall of the south Korean army headquarters in October 1949, Roberts, chief of the military advisory group, said: "Many attacks on the area north of the 38th parallel have been launched no doubt by my order, and many more attacks will be made also in the future. On many occasions, however, the units attacked as they liked without any success, only wasting a large amount of ammunition and suffering fatal losses. ... In future, the national defence army must attack the area north of the 38th parallel only by the order of the US military mission." (A Japanese book, America Was Defeated, p. 14.)

Foreign dispatches, therefore, commented on the clashes provoked by the United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique along the 38th parallel as a "small war".

The United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique considered the clashes along the 38th parallel to be "good guinea-pigs for a civil war" and "exercises for increasing their fighting efficiency by direct contact with their enemy", and made use of them as opportunities for improving their attack positions by occupying commanding heights and areas favourable for realizing their plan of conquering the north.

The special purpose the United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique pursued when manipulating the clashes along the 38th parallel was to utilize the incidents as a means of speeding up the preparations for the war in every way and finding an excuse to shift the responsibility for the provocation of the war onto the DPRK after the outbreak of the war by making a largescale misleading propaganda that the clashes were caused by the "policy of the north for reunifying the country by communizing the south".

To achieve this purpose they even did not hesitate to disguise puppet troops as "north Korean troops" and let them sound gunshots along the 38th parallel in order to produce a farce of "raids by the north Korean troops".

The armed clashes caused by them along the 38th parallel were, in fact, the "prelude" to the Korean War and a stratagem to shift the responsibility for the provocation of the war onto the DPRK.

THE FAKE AND THE CAMOUFLAGED OFFENSIVE

ON THE EVE OF THE WAR

When starting the Korean War, the United States employed the technique of faking not only to achieve surprise, but also create favourable conditions for blaming their war upon the attacked country.

Attaching great importance to the fake and camouflaged offensive on the eve of the Korean War, the United States carried on a false propaganda about their "Far East defence line" with a view to creating the impression that they were indifferent to the Korean peninsula.

This propaganda was stepped up following US Secretary of State Acheson's policy statement on January 12, 1950, after Connally, Chairman of the US Senate Foreign Relations Committee, said early in January that the Korean peninsula was not the forward defense line of the United States.

In his policy statement made at a luncheon given by the national press club in Washington, Acheson said roughly as follows: "The Far East defense line of the United States runs from Aleutian Islands through Honshu, Japan, to the Ryukyu Islands. We have major defenses on Ryukyu and will continue to maintain them. The defense line runs again from Ryukyu and is linked to the Philippines. ... There is no one who will ensure security of the country outside the defense line against military attack." (A South Korean book. The Diplomatic Memoirs of the Republic of Korea, Seoul Sinmun, 1964, pp. 210-11.)

After the statement the United States got the press to launch an intensive propaganda that south Korea was "outside the range of US protection". The subsequent movements of the United States, however, clearly showed that their Far East defense line was nothing but a fake for their aggressive war in Korea.

Immediately after the policy statement about their Far East defense line, the United States drew up the strategic plan NSC-68 for a "special action" to be taken in case of the outbreak of the Korean War. This was the plan for starting the Korean War. It was drafted and agreed upon at a joint conference of the US Department of State and the US Joint Chiefs of Staff according to President Truman's instructions in January 1950, and was approved by the US National Security Council on April 2 the same year. {The New York Times, April 13, 1964.} On January 26, 1950, the United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique signed the "ROK-US mutual defense and aid agreement" and the "agreement for the establishment of the US Military Advisory Group in the ROK". In February MacArthur called Syngman Rhee to Tokyo, Japan, to reach an agreement for the invasion of the north and promised to give more military aid to south Korea.

In his conversation with Syngman Rhee's special envoy Chang Myon, US Assistant Secretary of State for the Far East Dean Rusk said that in view of the fact that the United States was now giving the Republic of Korea a considerable amount of material aid and political support as in the past, he thought that the inference that the United States had abandoned the Republic of Korea to the enemy was unfounded. (A South Korean book, The Diplomatic Memoirs of the Republic of Korea, 1964, p. 212.) Rusk's comment, which was made public by the US State Department on April 3, 1950, clearly proves that the United States' "Far East defense line" was a smoke screen to hide their provocation of the Korean War.

Prior to their provocation of the Korean War, the United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique used the technique of "queer silence". At the beginning of 1950 they widely clamoured for "push north" while spreading the possibility of "May-June crisis". This agitated public apprehension at home and abroad that they might cause the outbreak of the Korean War. Recognizing that starting war in this situation would be very unfavourable to them, the United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique adopted a scheme of "silence".

This scheme was carried out by the Syngman Rhee puppet clique under the United States' instruction that it would be wise to wait for the time in silence instead of clamouring loudly for "push north", because invading the north in silence would be convenient for shifting the blame and for intervention by the United States.

Sin Song Mo and other puppets, who at the instigation of the United States were clamouring for "push north" at press conferences and over the radio on May 10, saying, "The danger of aggression from the north is imminent," (A US newspaper. The New York Times, May 11, 1950) ordered news blackout for over 40 days from May 10, 1950.

Reflecting this fact, a US book. The History of the Korean War, Japanese ed.. Part 1, p. 101, said: "Of various events taking place on and under the ground of this country which is called 'the land of morning calm', there is an event that reflects the special change in the situation. Since the Defense Minister's May 10 warning that an attack from the north was predicted, the newspapers and other publications and politicians became totally silent about the warning." Another US book. The Hidden History of the Korean War, Japanese ed., p. 56,' said: "Since May 11, 1950 the ROK government, too, kept silence about such a danger (the danger of attack by the DPRK—Editor) and its shortage of equipment."

The scheme of "silence" aroused public suspicion at home and abroad against the hopes of the United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique.

The reporters of the West, who used to hear the bellicose "push north" racket from south Korea, expressed suspicion about the "silence", calling it the "silence of Seoul" and describing south Korea in May to June as a "quiet land".

A Japanese book. The Korean War, by Hora Tomio, said on page 22, "How should it be explained that the ROK government kept silence for 40 days, a period which they judged to be most dangerous? This is really strange." This reveals that the "silence" scheme of the United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique served an ulterior purpose.

The United States and their puppet clique tried to hide their act of provoking the Korean War by sending their high-ranking officials away on weekend holidays, on trips or inviting them to dinner parties on the eve of the Korean War.

US President Truman, the prime mover of the Korean War, went to his home town in Missouri on weekend holiday on June 24, 1950; Secretary of State Acheson also acted a farce by making a trip to his farm near Maryland on weekend holiday; Dulles made a local weekend trip to Kyoto, Japan, on June 24; US Secretary of the Army Frank Payee and US Assistant Secretary of State for Far East Dean Rusk went to a dinner party in Georgetown; the chief of the US Military Advisory Group in south Korea Roberts was called back to the United States; and its chief of staff Wright went on a trip.

However, in anticipation of the provocation of the Korean War, the United States kept US Far East Commander MacArthur, its chief of staff Almond and its staff officers on stand-by by special orders.

US Secretary of Defense Johnson and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Bradley, who had been attending the quadripartite conference in Tokyo, were made to arrive in Washington by June 24, and 30 US State Department officials were ordered to come to work even on holiday (June25).

This shows that the United States organized the movement of the high-ranking officials with an ulterior purpose after having established a strict command system for the operations to start the Korean War.

This unusual steps taken by the United States on the eve of the war aroused great public suspicion. A US book. The Korean War: An Unanswered Question, said on page 14: "The President and the Secretary of State who were to speak on behalf of the United States were on an outing on the eve of the war. The middle-ranking officials who came to work in the State Department were not policy-makers but Secretary-level persons, who were to execute orders.

"Later the United States asserted that this was an unexpected surprising event. Judging from their earlier actions, however, there is something of a plot without a shadow of doubt." This exposes the truth of the movement of the United States on the eve of the war.

Following the script made by the United States, the Syngman Rhee puppet clique also took deceptive measures such as lifting of the emergency martial law, permission of outings, staying out, and dinner parties, in order to hide their provocation of the war. At zero hour on June 24, the day before they provoked the war, they lifted the martial law which had been declared at the beginning of June 1950, and permitted outings, staying out and leave as a part of their stratagem.

They also timed the celebration of the completion of the officers' club building in the compound of the army headquarters on the evening of June 24, the day before they started the war, and made a false report that the commanders of the frontline units and high-ranking officers of the army headquarters had attended the ceremony.

Commenting on this stratagem, a Japanese book, The Korean War, by Hora Tomio, said on page 29, "The ROK side had a short breathing space to lift the martial law because they had to prepare the preemptive attack."

Even, a south Korean magazine Sasanggye (June 1965), quoted the testimony of Ri Song Ga, the then 8th Infantry Division Commander of the puppet army, who said, "As a frontline division commander I am not sure whether the units in Seoul were so or not, but we were on emergency standby at that time. Outings were forbidden, and we started fighting at the dawn of June 25." At that time a puppet army officer said, "June 24 was Saturday, but the frontline officers were not allowed to leave their units, but were told to wait for combat orders. On the night of 24th the army unit received the secret order to break through the 38th parallel and start military actions against north Korea at dawn of the 25th." All this shows that the United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique carried out their plan of invasion of the north and employed fake and camouflaged offensive as a smokescreen on the eve of the war.

The United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique made all the preparations behind the smokescreen of fake and camouflaged offensive and started the invasion of the north by surprise at dawn on June 25, 1950.

THE UN RESOLUTION FORGED BEFORE STARTING THE WAR

The United States, which used the United Nations as a tool of realizing their wild ambition of world domination after the Second World War, brought the UN Temporary Commission on Korea into south Korea and pursued their policy of colonial enslavement.

With relish for this method, the United States planned to provoke the Korean War by inveigling the UN and the armed forces of their satellite nations into the aggressive war. They also schemed to make misleading propaganda that "north Korea invaded the south while they themselves started to attack north Korea," (A Japanese book, America Was Defeated, p. 16) and then brought the case to the UN to blame their war upon the DPRK.

In line with this scheme of the United States, a UN resolution, a false document to present the "case of attack by north Korea" to the UN, was drafted in advance in the office of political security investigation of the State

Department.

This fact was revealed at the time of hearing of the State Department budget in the US Senate Appropriations Committee on June 5, 1951, nearly one year after the outbreak of the Korean War.

When asked by Senator Ferguson at the hearing, John D. Hikerson, Assistant Secretary of State for United Nations Affairs, answered: "Only the gist of the resolution was prepared. ... That was made with reference to the instances of aggression in the past. What is necessary in such a situation is to tell them first to stop aggression and return to the original position. Surely we made the keynote, but it was a mere outline." (A US book. The Hidden History of the Korean War, Japanese ed., pp. 66-69.) "At the head of his testimony the assistant state secretary asserted that attack had come 'without warning'. But in the end he confessed that they got warning and discussed preparations to cope with it and drafted the 'gist of the resolution' to be submitted to the UN." {Ib}d., p. 68.) When the fact that the United States had prepared the "gist of the resolution" to be submitted to the UN was known to the public, it caused the suspicion of the press which said, "Judging from the State Department's reluctance to open to the public the preparations of which the State Department might have been proud as the proof of its far-sightedness, it is suspicious that there may be something still hidden." {Ibid., pp. 68-69.}

Moreover, the truth of the scheme revealed itself to the whole world when the United States submitted the "UN resolution" which was added with lies in accordance with the prearranged script immediately after they had started the invasion of the north.

2. "STORY OF ATTACK FROM THE NORTH" FABRICATED SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH THE PROVOCATION OF THE WAR AND STRATAGEM AT THE UN

The United States fabricated the "story of attack from the north" immediately after provoking the war by usurping the name of the UN in accordance with the prearranged script, openly started their armed intervention, and tried to justify it in the name of the UN.

THE "STORY OF ATTACK FROM THE NORTH" PRODUCED FROM THE POCKETS OF MACARTHUR AND SYNGMAN RHEE

At the outbreak of the Korean War, the United States performed all sorts of tricks to describe the war as a "totally unexpected event" and as "attack from the north".

It is a stark reality that Syngman Rhee's puppet army provoked the Korean War on the morning of June 25, 1950, as planned by the United States. The United States, however, tried to describe the fact as "attack from the north" in order to deceive the world.

They attempted to present the outbreak of the Korean War as "attack from the north" through the "first report" sent to the US State Department by US ambassador to south Korea Muccio six hours after the provocation of the war on June 25,1950.

Muccio, who was waiting in Seoul for the news of the start of the war, drafted his telegram message to the US State Department on the basis of information provided by the Syngman Rhee puppet clique.

Muccio 's report said, "According to the report from the ROK army which was partially confirmed by the report of the field advisors of the KMAG, north Korean troops invaded the ROK territory at several spots this morning....

"The KMAG and the ROK authorities discussed the information. Judging from the nature and method of attack, it seems a full-scale attack on the ROK." (A US book. The History of the Korean War, Part 1, Japanese ed., p. 125.)

The ambiguous expressions of this message prove that the document lacks objectivity and fairness.

A US book. The Korean War: An Unanswered Question, commented on Muccio's "first report" with serious doubt:

"Ambassador Muccio's report indicates some questionable points. First, it is based on indirect, 'partially confirmed' information. In consequence, he could not give his own judgement of the situation on the demarcation line. Second, the report is based on information conveyed to field advisors of the KMAG by officials of the Ministry of Defense. As US officials often comment, reliability of ROK officials was generally doubtful. Third, field advisors of the KMAG are few in number, and they had to obtain information on the developments on the frontline from the ROK army. It is doubtful, therefore, whether they could personally confirm the information obtained from the ROK side. Fourth, Muccio's first telegram message has points of contradiction. He wrote that 'North Korean troops invaded the territory of the ROK on several spots' and then added that 'judging from the nature and method of attack it seemed a full-scale attack on the ROK.' Fifth, after making a statement that North Korea 'invaded the ROK...' he added that he was planning to investigate the information and thus seemed to step back a little from his statement. In conclusion, Muccio's report was a hypothesis. Nevertheless, his telegram message was treated in Washington as an established fact." (The Korean War: An Unanswered Question, pp. 13-14.)

The United States had no intention to confirm the unconfirmed, fragmentary information of Muccio's report, but dealt with it as an "established fact" because they intended to fabricate "invasion from the north".

Muccio's report to the State Department was tampered under State Secretary Acheson's supervision. Acheson got his staff (30 persons) retouch Muccio's message with reference to the "UN resolution" that had already been drafted.

Acheson cut off the introduction and conclusion of Muccio's message and added that "North Korean troops invaded the ROK at many spots at dawn today (the 25th)" and gave it to Gross, US delegate to the UN. Gross awakened UN Secretary General Trygvie Lie and showed him the message, demanding a meeting of the UN Security Council, and handed the prepared "resolution" to him.

Tricked by the United States and on their brigandish demand the UN Security Council met at two o'clock in the morning and adopted its "resolution" to the effect that the armed attack on south Korea by north Korean troops was an infringement of peace.

Hailing the adoption of the "resolution" by the UN, Truman sent a "congratulatory message" to Acheson, the mastermind of the farce. The message reads roughly as follows: To Dean Acheson About the occurrence between the 24th and 25th of June. Your immediate proposal for the convocation of the UN Security Council meeting on Saturday night and your notification to me were actions closely connected with the subsequent important events. If you had not taken such measures promptly, the United States would have to participate in the Korean War single-handed. Many successes that followed show that you are no doubt a great Secretary of State and an outstanding diplomat. I send this letter to you as a commendation for your merit.

Harry Truman

(A south Korean book. The Korean War as Seen by a Chinese, p. 24.)

Moreover, Truman gave a grand dinner party in honour of Acheson in the White House on the evening of the day he had sent the congratulatory message. The "resolution" was adopted without the participation of the delegate of the DPRK and the delegates of the Soviet Union and China in violation of the UN Charter, causing the denunciation and ridicule of the world community.

The falsehood of the "story of attack from the north" forged by the United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique was revealed when MacArthur, who directly organized and commanded the provocation of the Korean War, called an "emergency meeting" in bewilderment at the spread of the news of the invasion from the south.

Simultaneously with their provocation of the Korean War the United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique made a heated propaganda that the "north invaded the south." However, the fact that the "ROK attacked north Korea" revealed itself in Japan just as a gimlet in a bag reveals itself. About this a US book, The History of the Korean War, Part 1, Japanese ed., p. 114, said: "Was MacArthur's Headquarters in Tokyo attacked by surprise? John Gunther, a world traveller and newspaper reporter, as on a visit to Japan at that time and had a plan to go to Nikko on June 25, Sunday, with his wife, General Whitney and two senior officers of the General Headquarters. The company was to start at 8 o'clock in the morning. But Whitney, the closest advisor to MacArthur, failed to keep his promise because he had been called by MacArthur. The others of the company went to Nikko. According to Gunther, here was an unexpected telephone call to one of the two officers. When he came back from the telephone, he whispered, 'A big story has just broken. The south Koreans have attacked the north.' "

The news began to spread in Tokyo and other cities to ay nothing of MacArthur's Headquarters. "After MacArthur received a telephone call from Syngman Rhee (telephone call reporting the start of the war and requesting support—Editor), there was great commotion at the Supreme Headquarters of the allied forces," and "the high-ranking assistants to MacArthur were called to emergency meeting." (A US book. The Korean War: An Unanswered Question, p. 46.)

The truth of the "story of attack from the north" fabricated by Syngman Rhee, Muccio, Acheson, Truman, and MacArthur was exposed by an American news commentator who said, "The news of June 25, 1950, that north Korea attacked south Korea was produced from the pockets of Syngman Rhee and MacArthur." (A US book. The Modern History of the United States, Japanese ed., p. 153.)

The fact that the "story of attack from the north" was fabricated by the United States that had provoked the Korean War was also proved by the divulgence of the secret of the preparations for the evacuation of the families of the American soldiers in south Korea and of the secret about the Korean War in the continental United States, south Korea and other parts of the Far East.

"The fact that there was a plan of evacuation from south Korea before the start of the war" (A US book. The History of the Korean War, Part 1, Japanese ed., p. 118) was confirmed by Whitney, Chief of Staff, the US Far

East Command. The US Far East Command, in fact, planned the evacuation of the families of American soldiers and other Americans in south Korea before the war (by code name Coruler) (A Japanese book. The Korean War, Part 1, Bungei Shunju, 1981), as part of the plan of provoking the Korean War. According to the plan, the 8th US Army, Far East Air Force and Naval Force Commands were to take part in the operation.

About the preparation for the evacuation. The New York Times, dated June 26, 1950, said in the following vein:

It must first be pointed out that the attack in Korea was not at all a surprise. When reporters gathered in a large hall of the Defense Department, the Pentagon, an adjutant furnished "the proof that ... aggression was not a surprise attack by pointing out the fact that ships had been allocated to evacuate American officers' and other families from south Korea." (A US book. The Hidden History of the Korean War, Japanese ed., p. 17.)

The divulgence of the secret before the outbreak of the Korean War was also made public.

A Japanese book. The Korean War (by Hora Tomio, pp. 24-25), said, "Chinese capitalists in the United States in those days seem to have known the relatively correct time of the outbreak of the Korean War" and pointed out two facts as proofs. One is that P. M. Swigy, editor of Monthly Review, which published The Hidden History of the Korean War, said in the publisher's foreword, "Immediately before the outbreak of the Korean War at least 51 Chinese who are associated with the Nationalist Party and living in the United States and other parts of the world bought up large amounts of soya beans in the bean market of the United States and profited more than $30,000,000. This suggests that the Chinese in the United States were informed of Syngman Rhee's plan beforehand and tried to profit from the information." The other is that a special issue of China Lobby carried an article which said, "Two to three weeks before the outbreak of the Korean War the Chinese bought $ 6,886,000 bushels of soya beans for $ 2.34 a bushel. ... After the invasion of the ROK the price jumped up to $ 34.5."

This book also quoted The Story of Korea, coauthored by Coldwell and Prost, staff members of the US embassy in Seoul, which said, "Britain knew late at night on the day when the war started that there had been a warning that English people should escape three weeks before as far as possible. There were only six persons in the British embassy and they sensed that a war might break out." This proves that the secret of the Korean War leaked.

A US book. The Modern History of the United States, (Japanese ed., p. 153) pointed out that Dulles's International Nickel, which occupied 85% of nickel production in the capitalist world in those days, had raised its nickel price by 25% two months before June 25, 1950, linked the fact that the rubber price in the United States jumped up 50% between March and May 1950 to reach the postwar record in the United States' rubber export during the second quarter of 1950, with the evident danger of rubber supply because of the war in the Far East, and exposed that "people other than Dulles's International Nickel and soya bean speculators knew of the war in advance."

A Japanese book, The Korean War, Sinjimbutsu Shuraisha, 1973, pp. 22-23, commented that the full-scale landing exercise with landing ship tanks by the 16th Regiment of the US 24th Infantry Division in Japan from June 20, 1950, and the noisy purchase of the dictionaries of the Korean language by US occupation troops in Japanese showed unusual movements, foreboding among the Japanese the approach of a war. The June 1966 issue of the Japanese journal. Study of Korea, analyzed as a premonition of war the new painting of US army signs on the US jeeps in mid-June 1950 by mobilizing all the painters in Kogura city, Kyushu, Japan, where the 24th US Infantry Division was stationed.

US FORCES INVASION HIDDEN BY UN "RESOLUTION"

The United States which instigated the Syngman Rhee puppet clique to start the Korean War resorted to an open armed intervention against the DPRK, and tried to hide it by the UN "resolution".

Immediately after the UN Security Council fabricated the invasion from the south as an "invasion from the north" at two o'clock (American time) on June 25, 1950, Truman planned to commit the US forces to the invasion of the DPRK. At 7:40 p.m. (American time) on June 25, 1950, he summoned in a hurry the Secretary and Under Secretary of the US State Department, the Secretaries of three services, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the Army Chief of Staff, the Air Force Chief of Staff, and the Chief of Naval Operations to the guest house (Blair House) and held a meeting till eleven o'clock for armed intervention. At the meeting Truman said, "All people recognize that we must make every effort to counter the aggression." (A Japanese book, The Korean War, by Hora Tomio, p. 69) and ordered ammunition support and naval and air force commitment.

Truman also told the Joint Chiefs of Staff to prepare orders for hurling US forces into the Korean War and ordered the US 7th Fleet to patrol from Philippines to the Taiwan Straits under MacArthur's Command.

At 10:17 p.m. (American time) on June 26 Truman sent secret orders to MacArthur to commit the US Navy and Air Force to action in Korea. (A Japanese book, Japan Emerges Again, pp. 48-49.)

Earlier MacArthur, Commander of the US Far East Command, ordered US fighter-bombers to cross the 38th parallel and bomb north Korea.

The orders were carried out immediately. The Korean War, written by Perenbach, an American, said (on page 76), "That day (June 25, 1950—American time) the 68th and the 399th Fighter Wings and the 25th Fighter-bomber Wing of the US 5th Air Force made 163 sorties from Japan. ... The United States has already started the war."

Truman thus openly ordered the invasion of the DPRK and said that he did it in accordance with the UN resolution of June 25.

In connection with this US newspaper Minneapolis Times, dated July 23, 1950, said, "Quoting the UN resolution of June 25 for a ceasefire in order to justify his action, Truman said, 'The Security Council requested all the UN member nations to aid the implementation of the resolution. In this situation I ordered the US Navy and Air Force to aid and support the ROK Army."' This quotation exposed the truth.

For this reason, a US book. Who Began the Korean War7 (Japanese ed., pp.76-77), said, "The white paper of the US State Department said that the President 'ordered the US Air Force and Navy to support the ROK government, " on the afternoon of June 27 in accordance with the Security Council resolution of June 25, but that totally contradicts the fact.

"As is known, the Security Council resolution of the 25th only demanded a ceasefire, and the resolution on aiding the ROK was passed at the session of the 27th."

In an attempt to justify the invasion by the name of the UN, Truman forced the convocation of the UN Security Council meeting at 3 o'clock on the afternoon of June 27, even ignoring the proposal of the UN Commission on Korea for "both sides to act in accordance with the arbitration", and manipulated an illegal adoption of the resolution on "recommending the UN member nations to give the Republic of Korea an aid needed to repel armed attack and restore international peace and security in that area." In this regard The New York Times, dated August 26, 1950, quoted Malik, the Soviet delegate to the UN, who said:

"The United States government started armed aggression against the Korean people even before the illegal UN resolution was adopted. This was confirmed by the US delegate Mr. Austin. At the Security Council meeting on August 10 he declared that the US President ordered the US Navy and Air Force to aid the ROK government at 12 o'clock at noon, on June 27. The US delegate forced the Security Council to adopt the illegal resolution at its meeting which was convened at 3 p.m. on June 27 to hide the United States' aggression on Korea. This fact is clear also from the official record. The United States government, therefore, started aggression on Korea illegally and arbitrally a few hours before the convocation of the Security Council session, and thus made the aggression on Korea a fait accompli before the UN and the world. This is an irrefutable historical fact.

"The only logical conclusion derived from the abovementioned facts is that the United States government committed the act of aggression, and then attempted to hide the act of aggression by labelling it as the act of the UN." (A US book. The History of the Korean War, Part 1, Japanese ed., p. 203.)

Because the United States shifted the blame for the provocation of the Korean War onto the DPRK by usurping the name of the UN, because they hid US armed intervention against the DPRK by the UN "resolution", and because they fought the Korean War in the name of the UN, the August issue of the French monthly magazine L'Esprit said in denunciation, "...the United States fabricated a very selfish resolution by making use of the UN so promptly as to be suspicious." Even the press of the United States commented that the United States participated in the war in Korea wearing the overall of the UN and that MacArthur simply performed the role of the commander of the US forces with a blank credentials of the UN.

3. FABRICATION OF THE PROVOCATION OF THE KOREAN WAR DURING THE WAR

As the truth about their provocation of the Korean War was brought to light by the authentic secret documents captured by the KPA after liberating Seoul, the United States kept silence for some time. When Ridgway succeeded MacArthur as the Commander of the UN Forces in 1951, he came out with a forged "captured document of the north" in May 1951 and tried to prove "invasion from the north on June 25", fabricating absurd "tank invasion from the north", and "occupation of Seoul by first attack from the north" in order to reverse the truth of the provocation of the war.

"DOCUMENTS CAPTURED FROM THE NORTH", INVENTED AGAINST THE US DOCUMENTS, OBTAINED IN SEOUL,

FOR THE PROVOCATION OF THE WAR

The map of the military strategic plan for the "conquest of the north", the scheme (A) of the intelligence work for the year 1950, prepared by Section III, Intelligence Bureau of the south Korean puppet army, many reports, letters and other documents captured by the KPA during its counteroffensive in June 1950 clearly show that the United States provoked the Korean War.

The disfigured United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique invented "documents captured from the north" as a countermeasure. They included "Reconnaissance Order No. 1" and "Combat Order No. 1" of north Korea in the "special report" which was sent through the US delegate Austin to the UN Secretary General Trygvie Lie on May 2, 1951, and got them published.

The United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique said, "The documents in question are 'Reconnaissance Order No. 1' written in Russian and sent to the chief of staff of the 4th Division of the KPA on June 18 (1950) and 'Combat Order No. 1' issued in Korean by the 4th Division Commander on June 22. The first document was discovered in Seoul on October 4, 1950, and the other document might have been discovered probably on the battlefield." (A south Korean magazine, Sindong-A, July 1990, p. 448.)

The United States said that these "documents" spoke of the "north Korean attack on south Korea which started on June 25, 1950".

The KPA side demanded that the United States should show the original documents of "Reconnaissance Order No.l" and "Combat Order No. I", but the United States has been unable to present them in the UN or on the conference table at Panmunjom for many decades. They have tried to avoid their predicament by lame excuses, but were compelled to admit their failure.

In this connection an American historian Bruce Cummings said, "After all the original documents have not been discovered. I have heard from two record keepers that many US government offices searched for the original documents for many years only in vain. The two most important documents about the Korean War, which were narrowly declassified by the high-ranking level, are in a state of missing....

"When north Korea again asserted in 1965 that these documents were fabrications, the US authorities at Panmunjom contacted the chief of military history in haste, but the chief also failed to find them out. He asked General Willoughby about the documents. The General simply answered that 'enemy documents were handled almost every day.'" (Sindong-A, July 1990, p. 448.) He continued to say, "It is impossible to obtain the original documents. The photographed Russian copy has neither official stamp nor signature, nor individual seal, and is of the same handwriting throughout. So it is no doubt a copy from the original. Anyway it is impossible to prove by its outward appearance. It is strange that it is written in Russian.

"Only a few of the People's Army officers could read and speak Russian. (Most of the generals served in China and spoke Chinese.) And I have seen that the many documents captured from the People's Army were written in Korean. ... If I know what south Korea has done with this document, the document will be much less convincing." (Sindong-A, July 1990, p. 449.)

This fully exposes the falsehood of the "captured documents" produced by the United States to prove "invasion from the north".

THE "STORY OP TANKS THAT INVADED THE SOUTH" AND THE "STORY OF OCCUPATION OF SEOUL BY FIRST ATTACK

PROM THE NORTH"

Arguing that the "fact of surprise attack" by the KPA "was exposed in the course of the war," the United States invented the "story of tanks that invaded the south" and the "story of occupation of Seoul by the north that attacked first".

The United States argued that "nobody will believe that the army, which retreated with no tanks, first attacked more than 200 Soviet-made tanks." (A south Korean magazine, Jugan Hanguk, July 1990.)

The essence of this argument is that the DPRK provoked the war because it had tanks, and that they did not provoke the war because they had no tanks.

The Syngman Rhee puppet clique tried to get tanks before they provoked the war.

According to the memoirs of Jong II Gwon, puppet army chief of staff during the Korea War, Syngman Rhee asked the United States for tanks in October 1949, saying that his army had no tanks when the People's Army had tanks. But the United States declined, saying that tanks would be useless because roads and bridges in Korea were bad.

In this context, the United States' argument that "they did not give tanks to Syngman Rhee because if given tanks he would invade the north and start war," and that "the north attacked first with the support of advancing tanks" is a lie intended to shift the blame for the war onto the DPRK.

The United States also argued that the People's Army occupied Seoul on the third day of the war "because it attacked by surprise at the dawn of Sunday when the national defense army was relaxed."

This is also a lie invented to hide their true colours of the provoker of the Korean War.

Seoul fell on the third day of the war because the United States and the Syngman Rhee puppet clique started the war by underestimating the combat efficiency and preparedness of the People's Army.

In the confidential diplomatic document, titled. Military Affairs, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1950, Vol. 7, there is a record that "North Korea was viewed only in its relationship with the Soviet Union and China, and not correctly with regard to its independent way of thinking, its economic and military potentials." Ridgway, the US 8th Army Commander during the Korean War, confessed, "Though very regretful, I believe that we had to pay dearly because we failed to make a correct estimate of the high combat efficiency of north Korean People's Army. When the combat started, the headquarters had to change the calculation of the necessary strength of the troops to increase it almost every day, but we no doubt failed to make a correct estimate of the enemy's combat power." (A US book. The Korean War, p. 35.) This proves the falsehood of the "story of the occupation of Seoul by surprise attack from the north."

4. UNFOUNDED "RE-ILLUMINATION" OF THE PROVOCATION OF THE KOREAN WAR

AFTER THE ARMISTICE

While repeating the wartime technique of blaming their war on the DPRK in the postwar years, the United States persisted in distorting the history of the provocation of the Korean War by means of "re-illumination" through "declassification" due to the "law of free information", and by "joint appraisal of both belligerent parties" making deft use of the open-door policy of the Eastern European "communist side".

"DECLASSIFICATION" AS DEFINED

BY THE "LAW OF FREE INFORMATION"

By the US State Department's "declassification" in accordance with the "Law of Free Information" the United States meant that their top secret documents in relation to foreign countries were automatically "declassified" after 25 years of safekeeping. By this procedure, at the end of the 1970s when the period of the secrecy of the documents expired, the US State Department automatically made public the documents covering the period from immediately after August 15, 1945 to the years of the Korean War.

The United States and south Korea said that if the top secret documents about the outbreak of the Korean War were published, they could "re-illuminate" the "truth" of the outbreak of the war and expose "invasion from the north" on a factual basis.

The United States said that the "declassified" documents included the "US State Department's diplomatic documents", "reports from the US Central Intelligence Agency", "documents captured by the US Army", and "G-2 reports", and that the content of these documents was based on the "North Korean documents" which had been captured in Seoul, Taejon, Hapchon, Waegwan, Kosong, Andong, Pyongyang, Hamhung, Wonsan and 700 other places.

These "captured documents" were said to have been brought to Unit 8236, the translation and explanation department of the US Far East Command in Tokyo, classified into confidential documents and sent to the document section of the Military Documents Office, the US Federal Archives in Alexandria, Virginia, in November 1951.

In 1951 the document section of the Military Documents Office was abolished, and the "captured documents" were transferred to the general document section of the State Document Room, General Affairs Office of the US Federal Government. In 1977 the documents were re-examined and the "strictly confidential" documents were kept secret further for "security and national strategic" reasons, and only the documents which had, been considered favourable for misleading propaganda were "declassified".

At present the "declassified documents" are said to be kept in national record archives in Washington, United States, and partially permitted to be read by specified researchers. The documents are said to amount to 1,610,000 pages.

It is said that these documents include the official documents .of the State, reports, internal lecture materials, officials' personal histories, military maps of operation plans, photographed newspapers, and mimeographed magazines.

Saying now that these documents were "declassified", the "dark spots", "unclear spots" in the study of History of the Korean War would be brought to light, the United States got Jungang Ilbo, Dong-A llbo and other major newspapers in south Korea to establish columns for "re-illumination" of the Korean war to disparage the DPRK. The United States also tried to get the Washington University, Columbia University and other universities in the United States to distort the fact of provocation of the Korean War in the name of "intensive study". Columbia University published its first report under the title. The Politics of Liberated Korea, after its research of the "declassified captured documents" but the book failed to prove the "story of invasion from the north". Many years have passed since then, but the United States has been unable to obtain even a clue to be used for the propaganda of "invasion from the north".

If the United States had a document capable of proving the "north guilty", they would have published decades before without being restricted by the "Law of Free Information". This is as clear as daylight.

The United States tried to make use of "declassificadon" in hiding their provocation of the Korean War, but revealed its absurdity.

"JOINT ASSESSMENT BY BOTH BELLIGERENT PARTIES"

Taking advantage of reform and open door in the Soviet Union and other socialist countries in Eastern Europe from the latter half of the 1980s, and finding the possibility to bribe and utilize the revisionists and reformists who had degenerated into stooges of imperialism and some Koreans in the Soviet Union who had betrayed their nation, the United States came out with the "joint assessment by both belligerent parties" in an attempt to distort the fact of provocation of the Korean War.

The United States said that it was impossible to judge who had provoked the Korean War until the first half of the 1980s because each of the belligerent parties argued in its own favour when the Korean War remained unsettled legally, but that it was possible to judge correctly who had provoked the war through "joint assessment by both belligerent parties" because the materials about the Korean War kept by the Soviet Union were made public since then.

The United States launched propaganda at home and abroad that the "falsehood of the story of invasion from the south could be brought to light because the Soviet Union pursued the policy of glasnost and published information about the Korean War." Saying that the "one-sided information and argument of the Western side about the Korean War was less convincing, and that thanks to glasnost policy of the communist world, joint assessment by both belligerent parties would revise and supplement the fact greatly before long" (A south Korean newspaper, Dong-A Ilbo, June 24, 1990), the United States tried to hide the truth about their war provocation by every means.

South Korea bribed former Soviet scholars and invited them to symposiums where they were encouraged to introduce "new materials" about the Korean War or they were given fabricated "new materials" for "publication".

For a typical example, Bulkogonov, President of the Military History Institute directly under the former Soviet Defence Ministry, was bribed and made to publish "new material" intended to disparage the DPRK. South Korean authorities sent a government-patronized professor to approach Bulkogonov who attended the symposium held by Finnish Military Society in 1987 and bribe him. Instigated by the United States and south Korea, Bulkogonov wrote "Korean War White Paper", in which he tried to prove "invasion from the north".

Bulkogonov said that Stalin had pursued the policy of westward advance in Europe while supporting the Chinese revolution and seeking southward advance of communism in the Korean peninsula in Asia, for the spread and expansion of communism, and that, as a result, a war had broken out in Korea. On this issue he could not argue on a factual basis, but said that there was a documentary film about a number of talks between Stalin and the DPRK government delegation which was on an official friendship visit to the Soviet Union for a long time in February 1950, and surmised that the question of the Korean War had been discussed during the talks.

Bulkogonov's white paper, which was written in accordance with the script given by the United States and south Korea, was not convincing, so that it became the target of denunciation, ridicule and jeering by the public as well as academic circles, as soon as it was published.

To say that the Soviet Union, which had refrained from taking the opportunity of advancing as far as the southern tip of the Korean peninsula without difficulty when fighting against Japan during the Second World War, attempted to expand the communist sphere in Korea was completely illogical. It is widely known that around 1950 the Soviet Union was reluctant to fight against the United States and devoted its main effort to solving domestic problems without being involved in the United States' war machinations as far as possible, and that during the war the Soviet Union hesitated to support north Korea.

The United States and south Korea inveigled into their, farce of "joint assessment by belligerent parties" even some Koreans who had been on certain posts of the DPRK during the war and living in the Soviet Union in exile in the postwar years.

As a typical example, they bribed Ri Sang Jo who was living in the Soviet Union in exile and brought him to Seoul, announcing him as a witness to the outbreak of the Korean War and telling him to speak about what he had witnessed. When Ri Sang Jo at a press conference made a lengthy speech about the participation of the Chinese People's Volunteers in the war, journalists on the payroll of the south Korean government asked him to tell concrete facts of the provocation of the Korean War.

As Ri Sang Jo confessed that he was not sure about the fact because he had not been in the operations channel although he had been a Vice-Chief of General Staff of the People's Army, south Korea not only failed to recover the cost of their investment, but also was criticized by the south Korean press that they were using even a half dead fool for anti-communist propaganda.

The United States and south Korea also recruited Kang Sang Ho, who had been a Vice Minister of Interior of the DPRK during the war, and brought him to south Korea to put their scheme into practice only in vain. On arrival at the Kimpho Airport, he bragged, repeating the script given by south Korean officials, that "he came to testify the historical fact that the invasion on June 25 came from the north". In the subsequent press conferences, however, he failed to produce any factual evidence.

When taking Kang Sang Ho to Seoul, they brought 18 other Koreans from the Soviet Union to let them speak about the Korean War to the public, but this trick also failed. On June 19, 1990 a south Korean newspaper, Seoul Sinmun, said, "We have brought Koreans from the Soviet Union, former north Korean public officials, scholars. Generals and other high-ranking officials, to Seoul, welcomed and given them good treatment, requesting them to tell the secret at the time of June 25 in public, but we have obtained no valuable information." This is an example of the failure of the United States' scheme of distorting the truth of the provocation of the Korean War through "joint assessment by belligerent parties".

5. STEPPED-UP MACHINATIONS TO "REVERSE" THE TRUTH ABOUT THE PROVOCATION OF THE KOREAN WAR SINCE THE END OF THE COLD WAR

Raving about the "favourable" international situation since the end of the Cold War, the United States has been "reversing" the history of the provocation of the Korean War. By "reversing" it the United States meant distorting the truth of the provocation of the Korean War in their favour.

By this trickery the United States pursues a sinister aim of shifting the blame for the provocation of the Korean war onto the DPRK by taking advantage of the end of the Cold War, and of accusing the Republic of being a war criminal in order to isolate and stifle it.

For this purpose the United States and south Korea set about "reversing" the truth about the provocation of the Korean War as an important task, inveigling Presidents and other VIPs, Japanese militarists, their allies and satellites and even the collapsed Soviet Union so as to step up their trickery in depth and breadth.

They also made every effort to isolate and crush the pprk in order to make their trickery more effective.

MACHINATIONS TO "REVERSE" THE FACT

OF THE PROVOCATION OF THE KOREAN WAR

IN COLLUSION WITH THE YELTSIN GOVERNMENT

The United States and south Korea attempted to distort the truth of the provocation of the Korean War in collusion with the Yeltsin government by taking advantage of the end of the Cold War.

They said that history of the Korean War written by now should be inverted because it had not been written correctly under the influence of the Cold War between the East and the West. They calculated to involve in their scheme Russia which had been closely related to the Korean War.

At the instigation of the United States, south Korea offered some money to the Yeltsin government and asked it for secret information about the Korean War. As the Yeltsin government showed the sign of complying with the request, south Korea considered it a golden opportunity and its President, diplomats, officials of its Security Planning Agency and even scholars on the payroll of its government tried to obtain material about the Korean War from Yeltsin.

In November 1992 Kim Young Sam of south Korea invited Yeltsin to south Korea and bargained with him for secret material about the Korean War as a part of repayment for the loan given to Yeltsin.

Yeltsin spoke in the south Korean national assembly, promising that he would collect the "documents about June 25" and turn them over. In June 1994 Kim Young Sam paid a visit to Moscow and received from Yeltsin the telegram messages exchanged between the DPRK Foreign Ministry and the Soviet Foreign Ministry, records of interviews, and other diplomatic documents, proceedings of the conferences of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and other confidential documents, 545 pages of 216 documents in all.

Kim Young Sam bragged that the documents would clarify in detail "the historical fact that the north invaded the south on June 25." He also encouraged south Korean newspapers, Seoul Sinmun, Jungang llbo, Dong-A Ilbo, and others to launch malicious propaganda that "Russia, too, will speak the truth," that the "truth of the argument about the origin of the Korean War will become clear," and that the "falsehood of the story of invasion from the south will be proved and invasion from the north will become a fait accompli."

They failed, however, to find out apt information capable of supporting their argument for invasion from the north no matter how hard they went through the files. Failing in their attempt, they resorted to trickery by surmising or distorting the fact, saying, "The exchange of many diplomatic documents between the Soviet Union and north Korea in those days itself was for the preparation for the war that was provoked on June 25", "Although there is no direct mentioning, an analogy of various documents indicates that the north invaded the south on June 25,"and so on.

The video cassette. The Korean War, the Secret of the Central Committee of the Party, produced and broadcast by the Russian State Television Ostankino in May 1994 is an example of their trickery. The video cassette, which was said to have been made on the basis of material about the Korean War obtained from the archives of the Kremlin, Moscow, wantonly distorted the history of the provocation of the Korean War and described as if the Korean War had started by "invasion from the north".

Because the video cassette was a sheer fabrication from its title through to its content, it became the target of doubt and denunciation by academic circles and the public as soon as it was broadcast.

Bulkogonov, who was in charge of its production, said that the video cassette had been produced on the basis of material he himself had collected in the secret archives which was open to nobody else. His explanation aroused greater suspicion.

Genikin, Russian Doctor of History, and many other scholars questioned the authenticity of the material, saying that they could not believe that Bulkogonov alone had been allowed to read the secret documents of the Party Central Committee which were open to nobody else. In his article contributed to Pravda, dated May 31, 1994, Genikin said that Bulkogonov was not conscientious when he said that he had acquired the "monopoly of collecting secret documents which he alone knew". Vanin, chief of the Korea Section, the Institute of Oriental Study of the Russian Academy of Sciences, said that he could not understand that Bulkogonov had been able to make tic use of the secret material which nobody else could see. He criticized that it was nothing but a malicious act of agitation rather than an academic attitude to define "north Korea as a coterie of war criminals" by wilful quotation and interpretation of material without strict academic investigation through open discussion by experts. (A south Korean magazine, Hangyore 21, Appendix.) The video cassette was thus condemned as false. In consequence, south Korea was refuted and denounced by the officials of Russian Foreign Ministry and scholars.

At the International Academic Symposium jointly held by the south Korean Diplomatic Security Research Institute and the Russian World Economy and International Relations Research Institute at Moscow in October 1994, Panov, Vice-Minister of Russian Foreign Ministry, and Chitarenko, President of the Russian Far Eastern Affairs Research Institute, said that south Korea had driven "even Russia into diplomatic difficulty by publishing the documents about June 25" and denied south Korea's argument that the "north invaded the south on June 25". Saying in his keynote speech that large and small armed clashes had taken place frequently between north and south immediately before the outbreak of the war on June 25, 1950, and that "Frankly speaking, it is difficult to affirm 'invasion from the north,' " Panov brushed aside the argument about "invasion from the north".

The Russian diplomats and scholars took issue with the very publication of the documents about June 25 because the Russians had told the south Koreans not to make the documents public in consideration of their relations with the DPRK and China. When turning over the list of the documents to Han Sung Ju, chief of the south Korean Security Planning Agency, who was on a visit to Moscow in June 1993, Yeltsin had emphasized that the content of the documents should not be published in haste. In this regard, Seoul Sinmun, dated June 25, 1993, reported, "At the request of Russia the government is keeping all the content of the documents about June 25 in secret except the fact that it had received them. The Foreign Minister is also reacting very carefully, saying that not to open their content to the public in haste would be helpful to ROK-Russian relationship. Because of this, Han Sung Ju, having received the list from Yeltsin, reported it to Kim Young Sam tete-a-tete after returning home."

Yeltsin did not want to release the content of the documents in a hurry not because there was something in it but because he felt guilty about having sold away the secret diplomatic documents which were related to the third countries.

Nevertheless, south Korea not only opened them to the public in haste, but also guessed and exaggerated the fact arbitrarily when they failed to get the information they wanted, to embarrass Yeltsin. All this fact showed that the machinations of the United States and south Korea to "reverse" the history of the provocation of the Korean War in collusion with Yeltsin were a complete failure.


MACHINATIONS TO "REVERSE" THE HISTORY OF THE PROVOCATION OF THE KOREAN WAR BY INSTIGATING JAPANESE MILITARISTS

Reluctant in the Cold War years to express their official view about the Korean War, the Japanese militarists enforced news blackout to prevent the fact of their participation in the Korean War from leaking out through the radio and the press. They refrained from paying honour to those who had been killed in the Korean War and from paying official pension to them. They gave 5,000 dollars to each of the bereaved families and demanded them to keep the fact secret.

Because it was clear that if the international law took issue with Japan's participation in the Korean War, Japan had to make reparation or receive punishment, the Japanese militarists in the Cold War years only took part in the propaganda of the profitability of the Korean War.

After the end of the Cold War, however, the Japanese militarists revealed their true colours and joined in the machinations to "reverse" the history of the provocation of the Korean War at the instigation of the United States.

A typical example of their fabrications is that the "Korean War was a war in which north Korea's petty trick was fooled by MacArthur's large scheme."

In his article contributed to a Japanese magazine, Bungei Shunju, a Japanese reactionary historian Hagiwara said, "The Korean War was prepared by the then US Far East Commander MacArthur as part of his world strategy. When he was racking his brains to find a pretext for provoking the war, north Korea attacked south Korea in haste to liberate the south. So the blame for the provocation of the Korean War fell upon north Korea." He distorted the fact, saying, "North Korea was used by MacArthur, or fell into MacArthur's trap."

In order to justify his reactionary argument Hagiwara said that north Korea had hurried with its "plan of invading the south" to liberate south Korea and reunify the country, probably stimulated by the fact that the Communist Party of China had driven out Chiang Kaishek's Nationalist Party from the mainland, and that "although MacArthur in Tokyo was fully aware of north Korea's intention through the report from Willoughby's intelligence unit, he pretended to be ignorant." (A south Korean magazine. Mat, June 1994.)

Hagiwara's article was a variant of the "story of invasion from the north", fabricated by imitating the United States.

The DPRK was, in fact, well aware of the United States' preparation to provoke the Korean War, and took necessary countermeasures, with its alert eyes on every move of the United States, instead of merely looking at it. That was why the DPRK was able to frustrate the surprise attack by the Syngman Rhee puppet clique immediately and assume counteroffensive. In spite of this fact, after the end of the Cold War, the Japanese militarists joined in the United States' machinations to distort the history of the provocation of the Korean War and reversed black and white, in order to hide their acts of aggression committed by participating in the Korean War and create favourable conditions to isolate and stifle the DPRK and reinvade it.

LAST-DITCH ATTEMPT TO "REVERSE" THE HISTORY OF THE PROVOCATION OF THE KOREAN WAR IN COMBINATION WITH

THE MOVES TO ISOLATE AND STIFLE THE DPRK

After the Gulf War in the early 1990s the United States started to step up the machinations to distort the history of the provocation of the Korean War in combination with their military manoeuvres to crush the DPRK.

In collusion with dastardly elements of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United States invented "nuclear threat" and tried to isolate and stifle the DPRK by making a false charge against it and demanding it to give up the production of atomic bombs.

When the DPRK took a hard-line attitude and denied their charge, the United States let their Defense Secretary Perry appear in the NBC TV programme and declare that a pre-emptive attack on north Korea was one of their choices.

At the same time, the United States made an operation plan of striking the DPRK by mobilizing 6 aircraft carriers, 34 fighter wings, 4 bomber wings, and 11 army units of 500,000 troops, and was watching for a chance to provoke a second Korean War.

In conspiracy with the United States' machinations to isolate and stifle the DPRK, south Korea launched a misleading propaganda that the north was now developing nuclear weapons to impose nuclear disaster upon their fellow countrymen just as they had "invaded the south" by surprise with the Soviet-made tanks in the 1950s. Begging the United States to make a "pre-emptive attack", south Korea at the instigation of the United States said that their commando would destroy the nuclear power station. Even through TV and radio broadcast and other means of propaganda south Korea reminded the people of the pedestrian bridge over the Han River as if it had been made a shamble by the "tanks of the People's Army invading the south" in the 1950s, making a row as if bombers carrying nuclear bombs were flying over across the Military Demarcation Line.

About this situation , a south Korean magazine, Mal, April 1994, said, "The noise of nuclear threat made the inhabitants too nervous to keep their senses."

As the DPRK stays firm against their manoeuvres to isolate and stifle it, the United States and south Korea have adopted an "appeasement policy" in recent years, while at the same time intensifying preparations for a new war, vociferating about "north Korea's challenge against the United States in the 1950s".

According to the Voice of America (January 13, 1998), the United States stepped up their military manoeuvres to crush the DPRK by every means towards the end of the 1990s, saying that communist north Korea had challenged the United States in the '50s, that the most dangerous force that would challenge the United States in their establishment of their new order today was communist north Korea... and that the only rival that would drop nuclear bombs on the head of the United States was the north Korean army.

When the DPRK succeeded in launching the manmade satellite Kwangmyongsong No. 1 in August 1998, the United States and its followers increased tension and stepped up their moves to isolate and stifle the DPRK by clamouring about the "missile threat from the north", a variant of the "story of surprise invasion from the north" which they had used when provoking the Korean War on June 25, 1950.

Arguing about an unfounded "northern limit line" in June 1999, the United States and south Korea provoked the West Sea incident by mobilizing the south Korean navy. After that they staged war exercises in south Korea and in its surrounding areas more frequently than ever and reinforced the US forces in south Korea and the south Korean armed forces and increased tension. They perpetrated the despicable act of shifting the blame for the West Sea incident onto the DPRK without hesitation.

In his article about the West Sea incident, a judge in south Korea said through the computer network that the armed clash on the West Sea had been provoked deliberately by the south Korean navy. Embarrassed at this, the south Korean authorities conducted even a criminal investigation.

After provoking the West Sea incident, the United States and south Korea have become more vociferous about "military threat from the north" and the "possibility of unpredictable provocation", resorting to provocative acts of invading the north in a more grave manner. With more than a thousand nuclear weapons deployed in south Korea against the DPRK, the United States and south Korea have made the Operations Plan 5027-98. They are making preparations for bringing large US forces immediately for their all-out war, trying to use even the armed forces of Japan and other satellite countries, carrying on various joint military exercises and evacuation training for the families of the US soldiers in south Korea, and unhesitatingly vociferating about pre-emptive attack.

Especially notable against the background of these undisguised acts of the United States and their satellite nations to isolate and stifle the DPRK is the heated-up machinations to "reverse" the history of the provocation of the Korean War, machinations aimed at achieving their aim with greater efficiency.

On the occasion of the 50th anniversary in June 2000 of their provocation of the Korean War, the United States and south Korea are planning to intensify the propaganda to distort the history of the outbreak of the Korean War and other military actions for three years until 2003 by the investment of large amounts of money and manpower.

At the instigation of the United States, south Korean authorities organized the preparatory committee in 1998 for a noisy "function" in which the ruling upper crusts of the United States and south Korea will participate on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of their provocation of the Korean War, and they have drafted the budget for that purpose.

In 2000, advertising the "functions for the 50th anniversary" of the Korean War, south Korea attempted to erect "formative structures", edit "re-illuminated war history", hold a "memorial ceremony" for tens of thousands of US troops and mercenaries of their satellite nations who participated in the Korean War, "welcome dinner parties", "memorial medal awarding", organize visit to the graves of the "UNC soldiers", "street marching" and "re-staging of Inchon landing operation". Even after the publication of the June 15 North-South Joint Declaration, they have persisted in their machinations to distort history of the Korean War by holding the "functions of the 50th anniversary of Inchon landing operation" and other battles and what they called "functions for erecting memorial halls, and bronze statues".

This shows that the United States and south Korea are making last-ditch efforts to distort the history of the provocation of the Korean War, the efforts they had started even before their provocation of the Korean War, in combination with their manoeuvres to isolate and stifle the DPRK.

CONCLUSION

To expose the nasty, persistent trickery of the United States and their satellite nations to evade the blame for their provocation of the Korean War is of great significance in checking and frustrating the United States' manoeuvres for aggression and war and ensuring peace not only on the Korean peninsula but also in the rest of the world.

The conscientious press of the world should have a clear understanding of the truth behind the black curtain of the United States' machinations to distort the history of the provocation of the Korean War and strive to foil their attempt.

The United States and its followers, the war criminals who provoked the Korean War must thus be prevented from finding any pretext, and be brought to severe judgment of history to bear the legal responsibility for their crimes.

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